Permalink Print. The cognitive approach in psychology is a relatively modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on how we think. There is some dispute as to who created the cognitive approach, but some sources attribute the term to the s and s, with Ulric Neisser's book Cognitive Psychologywhich made allusions of the human mind working in a similar fashion to computers.
The approach came about in part due to the dissatisfaction with the behavioural approachwhich focused on our visible behaviour without understanding the internal processes that create it. It is based on the principle that our behaviour is generated by a series of stimuli and responses to these by thought processes. Cognitive meaning "knowing" psychologists attempt to create rules and explanations of human behavior and eventually generalise them to everyone's behaviour. The Humanistic Approach opposes this, taking into account individual differences that make us each behave differently.
The cognitive approach attempts to apply a scientific approach to human behaviour, which is reductionist in that it doesn't necessarily take into account such differences.
However, popular case studies of individual behaviour such as HM have lead cognitive psychology to take into account ideosynchracies of our behaviour. On the other hand, cognitive psychology acknowledges the thought process that goes into our behaviour, and the different moods that we experience that can impact on the way we respond to circumstances.
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Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Training Game for Older People: A Design-based Approach
Take Psychologist World's 5-minute memory test to measure your memory. Slave To Your Role? To what extent are people controlled by their roles in society? Are You Fixated? Discover your Freudian personality type with our Fixation Test. Interpret Your Dreams Learn to interpret the hidden meanings behind the themes of your dreams and nightmares. How to Read Body Language Learn to read and understand body signals and improve your own body language. How to Beat Stress and Succeed in Exams If you're one of the many people who gets stressed out when it comes to taking exams then we have a few tips for you that will help you to overcome this and really concentrating on achieving good grades.In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits.
Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support. However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research DBR to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults.
An overview of the literature of cognitive aging and training games was conducted to form the theoretical conjectures of the design, and an iterative cycle and process were employed to develop a mobile game for older adults who are homebound or receiving care in a nursing home.
Stakeholders, i. Using two cycles of design and evaluation, a working prototype of an iPad-based app that accounted for the needs of elderly adults in terms of form, appearance and working function was developed and tested in the actual contexts of the participants' homes and an assisted living facility.
The results showed that the cognitive training game developed in this study was accepted by the participants, and a high degree of satisfaction was noted.
Moreover, the elements of the interface, including its size, layout and control flow, were tested and found to be suitable for use. This study contributes to the literature by providing design suggestions for such games, including the designs of the cognitive training structure, interface, interaction, instructions and feedback, based on empirical evidence collected in natural settings.
This study further suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive training in mobile games be evaluated through field and physical testing on a larger scale in the future.
The number of elderly people in the world is increasing rapidly. Taiwan will have become an aged society by and a super-aged society by National Development Council, To cope with aging populations, governments and institutions around the world have proposed various guidelines, such as successful aging Rowe and Kahn,active aging Foster and Walker, and healthy aging World Health Organization, The purpose of these guidelines is generally to propose how elderly people's cognition, capacity and physical function can be maintained, to encourage their social participation and to emphasize the competence and knowledge that older people possess.
The idea of cognitive aging has gained attention as domain-specific, age-related cognitive changes that—at a minimum—affect attention, executive functioning, memory, language and visuospatial function, as indicated by neurochemical theory, localized theory and process theory Dempster, ; Salthouse, ; West, ; Volkow et al.
Normal aging leads to changes in inhibition and selective attention. These changes make older people more susceptible to the negative effects of divided attention, and task-switching is thus harder to perform Kray and Lindenberger, ; Mayr and Kliegl, One significant finding of related studies is that the aging-related decreases in working memory affect executive functioning.
Executive functioning is a high-order cognitive structure that uses and organizes large amounts of information to support goal-directed behavior Dobbs and Rule, ; Wang et al. The lower speed of time perceived by the elderly also affects their executive performance Turgeon et al. The age-related deficiency of executive function is a strong predictor of functional impairment in the elderly living in communities or assisted-living facilities Wang et al. In addition, the age-related memory decline has a particular effect on recollection ability during information finding and retrieval Park et al.
Recall is more difficult than recognition for elderly people, and their semantic memory appears to have a deficit Naveh-Benjamin, However, the related cues of familiarity, auditory context, and external context can help the recollection process of older people Park et al.
Another change is the age-related decline in language ability performance, which is affected by inhibition capability, working memory and the recollection process. This decline makes it more difficult for elderly people to understand sentences and recall text because of the great syntactic complexity these tasks involve Gold and Arbuckle, ; DeDe et al. According to previous studies, visuospatial abilities such as visuospatial attention, memory and orientation are also affected by age.
Integrative visuospatial tasks such as problem solving e. In addition, testing visuospatial access can more efficiently detect Alzheimer's patients at the early stage of cognitive decline than can testing verbal access De Federicis et al. Pursuing these questions, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that games can have a positive impact on senior citizens and can provide them with cognitive training Flynn et al.
These empirical studies have proposed certain components that make cognitive training games successful, such as training content comprised of customized and adaptive tasks Lachman,well-designed interaction via friendly interfaces Schmiedek et al.In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits. Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support.
However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research DBR to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults.
An overview of the literature of cognitive aging and training games was conducted to form the theoretical conjectures of the design, and an iterative cycle and process were employed to develop a mobile game for older adults who are homebound or receiving care in a nursing home. Stakeholders, i.
Using two cycles of design and evaluation, a working prototype of an iPad-based app that accounted for the needs of elderly adults in terms of form, appearance and working function was developed and tested in the actual contexts of the participants' homes and an assisted living facility. The results showed that the cognitive training game developed in this study was accepted by the participants, and a high degree of satisfaction was noted. Moreover, the elements of the interface, including its size, layout and control flow, were tested and found to be suitable for use.
This study contributes to the literature by providing design suggestions for such games, including the designs of the cognitive training structure, interface, interaction, instructions and feedback, based on empirical evidence collected in natural settings.
This study further suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive training in mobile games be evaluated through field and physical testing on a larger scale in the future. Keywords: app; cognitive training; design-based research; elderly adult; mobile game. Abstract In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits.The idea that humans conduct mental processes on incoming information — i. A dominant cognitive approach evolved, advocating that sensory information is manipulated internally prior to responses made — influenced by, for instance, our motivations and beliefs.
Introspection — a subjective method predominantly used by philosophical and psychodynamic approaches — was rejected in favour of experimental methodology to study internal processes scientifically.
Using experimental research methods, the cognitive approach studies internal mental processes such as attention, memory and decision-making. For example, an investigation might compare the abilities of groups to memorize a list of words, presenting them either verbally or visually to infer which type of sensory information is easiest to process, and could further investigate whether or not this changes with different word types or individuals.
Theoretical and computer models are proposed to attempt to explain and infer information about mental processes. For example, the Information-Processing Model Figure 1 describes the mind as if a computer, in terms of the relationship between incoming information to be encoded from the sensesmanipulating this mentally e.
An example might be an artist looking at a picturesque landscape, deciding which paint colour suits a given area, before brushing the selected colour onto a canvas. In recent decades, newer models including Computational and Connectionist models have taken some attention away from the previously dominant information-processing analogy:. Schemas are like stereotypes, and alter mental processing of incoming information; their role in eyewitness testimony can be negative, as what somebody expects to see may distort their memory of was actually witnessed.
This related field became prevalent over the latter half of the twentieth century, incorporating neuroscience techniques such as brain scanning to study the impact of brain structures on cognitive processes. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff!
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Psychology Reference library. The cognitive approach assumes: The mind actively processes information from our senses touch, taste etc. Between stimulus and response are complex mental processes, which can be studied scientifically. Humans can be seen as data processing systems. The workings of a computer and the human mind are alike — they encode and store information, and they have outputs.
The Study of Internal Mental Processes Using experimental research methods, the cognitive approach studies internal mental processes such as attention, memory and decision-making. In recent decades, newer models including Computational and Connectionist models have taken some attention away from the previously dominant information-processing analogy: The Computational model similarly compares with a computer, but focuses more on how we structure the process of reaching the behavioural output i.
The Connectionist model takes a neural line of thought; it looks at the mind as a complex network of neurons, which activate in regular configurations that characterize known associations between stimuli. Cognitive Neuroscience emergence This related field became prevalent over the latter half of the twentieth century, incorporating neuroscience techniques such as brain scanning to study the impact of brain structures on cognitive processes.
Evaluation of the cognitive approach Strengths Models have presented a useful means to help explain internal mental processes The approach provides a strong focus on internal mental processes, which behaviourists before did not.
The experimental methods used by the approach are considered scientific. Weaknesses It could be argued that cognitive models over-simplify explanations for complex mental processes. The data supporting cognitive theories often come from unrealistic tasks used in laboratory experiments, which puts the ecological validity of theories into question i.
Comparing a human mind to a machine or computer is arguably an unsophisticated analogy. Print page. Related Collections. Approaches in Psychology Collections. You might also like. Neurons and Neurotransmission Revision quizzes. Cognitive Approach Revision quizzes. From the Blog. Brenda Milner celebrates her st birthday! Sans Forgetica - Could it help improve memory and tackle dementia?
Neuroscience - unlocking the mysteries of the teenage brain 29th May Cognitive psychology became of great importance in the mids. Several factors were important in this:. The emphasis of psychology shifted away from the study of conditioned behavior and psychoanalytical notions about the study of the mind, towards the understanding of human information processing, using strict and rigorous laboratory investigation. Behaviorists rejected the idea of studying the mind because internal mental processes cannot be observed and objectively measured.
However, cognitive psychologists regard it as essential to look at the mental processes of an organism and how these influence behavior. Cognitive psychologists follow the example of the behaviorists in preferring objective, controlled, scientific methods for investigating behavior. They use the results of their investigations as the basis for making inferences about mental processes. Information processing in humans resembles that in computers, and is based on based on transforming information, storing information and retrieving information from memory.
Information processing models of cognitive processes such as memory and attention assume that mental processes follow a clear sequence. Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman. His book Purposive Behavior in Animals and Man in described research which behaviorism found difficult to explain. However, Tolman suggested that learning was based on the relationships which formed amongst stimuli. He referred to these relationships as cognitive maps.
But it was the arrival of the computer that gave cognitive psychology the terminology and metaphor it needed to investigate the human mind. The start of the use of computers allowed psychologists to try to understand the complexities of human cognition by comparing it with something simpler and better understood, i.
The use of the computer as a tool for thinking how the human mind handles information is known as the computer analogy. Essentially, a computer codes i. The idea of information processing was adopted by cognitive psychologists as a model of how human thought works. Cognitive processing can often be affected by schemas a mental framework of beliefs and expectations developed from experience. As you get older, these become more detailed and sophisticated.
They are based on our previous experience. Schemas help us to interpret incoming information quickly and effectively, this prevents us from being overwhelmed by the vast amount of information we perceive in our environment. However it can also lead to distortion of this information as we select and interpret environmental stimuli using schemas which might not be relevant. This could be the cause of inaccuracies in areas such as eyewitness testimony.
It can also explain some errors we make when perceiving optical illusions. The behaviorists approach only studies external observable stimulus and response behavior which can be objectively measured.The entire tour package was exactly what we had requested and the accommodations at Guesthouse Sunna met our expectations for location, size of rooms, service and good good. On our Golden Circle Tour we had the most amazing tour guide, Arsthor.
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The Cognitive Approach
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COSTA LANTE racing back from the city and all wins have come when faced with dry ground, in with a chance.
Flow Meter (1) 6. No Fairy (9) 1. Duquessa (3) Hard to see anything upsetting the top two choices. CHENERS short back-up of six days and in strong form with two wins from nine attempts this campaign, a close top pick. FLOW METER short back-up of seven days and drawn perfectly, hard to hold out. NO FAIRY 4 from five wins have been in the dry and running 7. DUQUESSA 4 from eight wins have been in the dry and racing back from metro track, don't treat lightly.
Cavalry Gold (6) 2. Gold Seal (5) 1. Gangster's Run (3) Scratched 12. Jarrvis (9) CAVALRY GOLD comes back to race at a country level and won once this prep at Strathalbyn three runs back, well placed. GOLD SEAL gets going late and placed once this prep at Horsham, sneaky chance.
GANGSTER'S RUN 2 of four wins have come from dry ground and comes back to race at a country level, still in this.
JARRVIS has good early speed and drops 2. Rubino Veloce (4) 2. Kalooki (1) AMMATE resumes after a 16 week spell and resumes well running second at Queanbeyan when last first-up, a close top pick. RUBINO VELOCE ran four lengths back from the winner at only start at Kembla but drops 1kg from last run, outside hope.
ROBBERY resumes from an 18 week spell and resumes well, for the wider exotics. KALOOKI on debut and placed in Moruya trial, consider in exotics. Fruitful Warrior (4) 6. Bundewallah Land (7) 1. Aim to Win (1) 5. Billy Can (8) FRUITFUL WARRIOR amongst the placegetters last start running third at Canberra and has two placings from six runs this prep, commands respect.
AIM TO WIN draws to do no work and has two placings from three runs this prep, looks threatening. BILLY CAN has good early speed and could come on strong to threaten, each-way claims. Element of Luck (1) 2. True Lady's Man (5) 3. North of Hell (2) ELEMENT OF LUCK on a six day back-up and finished fourth last start at Sapphire Coast, major contender. TRUE LADY'S MAN should look to roll forward and may be caught late, include in exotics.
NORTH OF HELL placed when fresh and finished seventh last start at Moruya, capable of getting into the money with a bit of luck. Mr Tickets (11) 2.